At normal temperature, isolated ischemic tissues and organs die in a short period of time (a few minutes, many less than a few hours) and cannot be used for transplantation. It is impossible to complete the transplant in such a short time. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the activity of tissues and organs by cryopreservation technology. At present, the preservation of tissues and organs mainly adopts the technique of perfusing the cryoprotectant of infiltrating organs and then lowering the temperature by program. The principle is to slow down the rate of the chemical reactions such as hypoxia and energy consumption, so as to avoid chemical and physical damage caused by chemical reaction and ice crystal, keep their biological activity, thus prolong the survival time of isolated tissues and organs.
It is possible to measure the relationship between the difference of energy input to the measured sample and the reference material and the temperature (or time) through the temperature control of the program. It has a wide range of applications, especially the research and development of materials, performance testing and quality control, such as glass transition temperature, cold crystallization, phase transformation, melting, crystallization, product stability, solidification/cross-linking, oxidation induction period, etc.
Cryoprotectants are the basis of cryopreservation of various human cells, tissues and organs. Since the discovery of the cryoprotection of glycerol in 1960s, more than 50 drugs or reagents have been applied to cryoprotection. In recent years, with the development of vitrification cryopreservation technology, many researchers have paid more attention to the research of cryoprotectants.
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