Cryopreservation of tissues and organs

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At present, cryopreservation technology (temperature at minus 196°C) has become the most commonly used and effective long-term preservation method for single cells, and has successfully achieved human sperm, oocytes, embryos, red blood cells, monocytes, embryonic stem cells, and hematopoiesis. Vitrified preservation of stem cells, pancreatic islets, etc. At the same time, cryopreservation is relatively more difficult because tissues and organs contain multiple types of cells, as well as large volumes and complex spatial structures.

Currently, the tissues and organs that can be cryopreserved include skin, cartilage, heart valves, ovaries, trachea, etc. Relatively mature cornea and eye tissue banks, vascular heart valve banks, bone banks (freeze-dried bone banks), skin banks, etc. have been established. . The cryopreservation technology of nerves, blood vessels, liver slices, etc. needs to be further improved, but the cryopreservation of complete kidneys, hearts, lungs, liver, pancreas, etc. is still not possible. In 2009, Gregory M. Fahy, the chief researcher of the 21st Century Medicine laboratory, published a paper in Organogenesis, creatively using a vitrification method to reduce rabbit kidneys to It was stored frozen at -135°C and successfully transplanted after reheating. Since then, many research institutions around the world have explored cryopreservation of different tissues and organs to varying degrees. At present, it is still difficult for complex tissues and organs to maintain their vitality and function using cryopreservation technology. Relying on traditional short-term preservation methods of isolated organs will not only cause greater tissue damage, but also cause damage due to various factors. As a result, precious organ resources cannot be used.

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