Human tissue and organ cryopreservation technology

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At normal temperature, isolated ischemic tissues and organs will die within a short period of time (from a few minutes to a few hours at most) and cannot be used for transplantation. It is impossible to complete the transplant operation in such a short period of time. Therefore, tissue and organ cryopreservation technology is needed to maintain their activity. At present, tissue and organ preservation mainly adopts the technical method of perfusion and infiltration of organs with cryogenic protective solution and then programmed cooling. The principle is to slow down the rate of chemical reactions such as hypoxia and energy consumption in isolated tissues and organs through perfusion, infiltration and programmed cooling, thereby avoiding chemical reactions. The chemical damage and physical damage caused by the reaction and production of ice crystals can maintain their biological activity, thus extending the survival time of isolated tissues and organs.

Through in-depth research, cryopreservation and recovery technologies for some human tissues and organs have been developed (including: cornea, valves, tendons, joints, blood vessels, skin, ovaries, small-sized severed limbs) and corresponding lavage fluids and cryoprotective fluids. The ingredients enable short-term, mid-term and long-term preservation of various types of tissues and organs in different low-temperature environments that are suitable for clinical transplantation, thus breaking the time and geographical restrictions on tissue and organ transplantation.

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