Cryopreservation of Tissues and Organs
At present, deep cryopreservation technology (temperature below -196°C) has become the most common and effective long-term preservation method for single cell, and has successfully realized vitrification of human sperm, oocyte, embryo, erythrocyte, monocyte, embryonic stem cell, hematopoietic stem cell, islet, etc. At the same time, cryopreservation is more difficult because tissues and organs contain multiple types of cells, as well as larger volumes and complex spatial structures.
At present, the tissues and organs capable of deep cryopreservation include skin, cartilage, heart valve, ovary, trachea, etc. The relatively mature corneal eye tissue bank, vascular heart valve bank, bone bank (freeze-dried bone bank) and skin bank have been established. The cryopreservation technology of nerve, blood vessel and liver slice needs further improvement, while the intact kidney, heart, lung, liver and pancreas can not realize deep cryopreservation. In 2009, Gregory M. Fahy, a lead researcher at 21st Century Medicine's laboratory, published a paper on "Organogenesis," creatively using vitrification to cryopreserve rabbit kidneys at -135°C, re-warmed and successfully transplanted. After that, many research institutions around the world have explored the cryopreservation of different tissues and organs in different degrees. At present, it is still difficult for organs with complex tissues to maintain their vitality and function by deep cryopreservation. However, depending on the traditional short-term preservation method of isolated organs, it will not only cause great tissue damage, but also result in the unavailability of valuable organ resources due to many factors.
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